Kenya taps innovative digital mapping to enhance public participation

Kenya taps innovative digital mapping to enhance public participation

Counties of Kenya

Kenya is well known for its innovation in technology, particularly mobile technology in cash transfers. These innovations have largely been championed by the private sector and young entrepreneurs.

In contrast, the public sector tends to play catch up adopting new technology, and that has remained true in implementing Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS, also referred to as digital maps, is utilized to capture, store, analyze, manage, and present geographic data.

Previously, digital mapping was commonly used in urban planning, zoning and other forms of spatial plans. Increasingly digital maps are being used to provide information on the status, cost and location of development projects.  This approach has mainstreamed the use of digital maps in planning, communication and information sharing across other sectors.

Such sectors include citizen and stakeholder engagement critical for the success of development initiatives. Digital mapping is particularly important for public participation, such as through participatory budgeting which aims to improve how counties spend public money on development.  This is especially because public participation requires that citizens have accurate and up to date information.

Although many GIS are difficult for citizens to use and are also inaccessible, OpenStreetMap (OSM)is a free Wiki world map that is accessible for anyone to update and use. A quick review of the OSM will reveal that most parts of our country Kenya are not mapped. The information on the basic facilities, amenities, structures, and features are not available even for our cities and main towns. They appear as a blank area on the map. A similar review of cities and towns in western countries on OSM shows that most spatial and commercial information is readily available.

A local institution, Map Kibera Trust, with the help from citizen volunteers and with the support from the World Bank who is funding the Kenya Accountable Devolution Program (KADP), used OSM to map the locations of schools, health facilities, churches, and other social amenities and other facilities on the map of Makueni. They provided the status of the projects that have been implemented by the Makueni County.

Counties can also adopt affordable and accessible digital maps to improve citizen participation and expand available information. For instance, the mapping pilot project with Map Kibera Trust, a group of young people were trained to use a mobile phone application, Open Data Kit (ODK) to collect GPS coordinates of development projects that have been implemented by the counties, as well as important features and points of interest.

This information was uploaded onto the OSM by the youth with the help of GIS mappers. The involvement of citizens in collecting information on projects facilitated verification of the implementation status of the projects. These maps have created considerable relevant new information for the local communities.

Participatory budgeting decision making demands up to date detailed information that would enable the public to make decisions  on the nature and types of investment that should be done in their counties. In an effort to facilitate decision making, one county would use rudimentary mapping exercises using flip charts, papers and markers pens during their participatory budgeting process.

Every year, they would update the paper maps, and it became apparent that there was a need to digitize the process. The introduction of digital maps to this process would significantly enhance the decision-making process.

GIS mapping will enable counties to have better map coverage; counties can host and manage web maps that are accessible to the public and can easily be updated and expanded in a participatory manner. At the same time, the maps can be printed for usage by the community members during the participatory planning and budgeting meetings.

The required investment for developing, maintaining and expanding the OSM digital maps is much lower while ensuring that counties can have relevant up to date digital maps that can be developed and updated locally by the county officials in partnership with citizens. Investment in training and capacity means subsequent updating and maintenance will be at a minimum cost.

The GIS maps will enhance development planning, equitable sharing of resource as well as communication and public relations.

Posted Previously on the World Bank Blog.

Let Counties Seek Participation Benefits

Let Counties Seek Participation Benefits

Community sharing priority projects for budgeting in.

Public participation is one of our national values articulated in Article 10 of the Constitution and pervasive throughout the constitutional and other laws.

It is a cornerstone for the success of Kenya’s devolution agenda of promoting self-governance and the vehicle for delivery of efficient services throughout the 47 counties.

With all its pervasiveness, however, public participation has remained a mystery and, to many Kenyans, a disappointment as they do not realise their expectations of the citizen forums.

Some county governments do public participation just to fulfil the legal and constitutional requirements but may not find it useful for the internal processes and decision-making.

To them, public participation incurs costs and takes time they could well do without.

The public experience equal levels of frustrations and disappointments.


So, what really makes public participation such a myth? Why do we have perhaps less than 10 per cent of the counties finding public participation meaningful?

The main challenge begins with the design of public participation in the counties. Essentially, public participation should be perceived as a process, not an event. A process that has very clear series of activities and expected outcomes.

Public participation must be championed by the top leadership for it to work effectively. It must be owned by the public officials — the technocrats — who are expected to implement it.

It’s the technocrats who roll out the political leadership agenda; so, if they don’t believe in it, or if they do not put in place the right mechanisms and processes for implementing it, then it does not bring out the expected benefits.

The political leadership sets the tone and facilitates the process and gives the necessary resources, allocates adequate time for the processes that ensures that the intended results are realised and reported against by the technocrats. In most counties, the citizen forums are held with the intention of involving the public in planning and budgeting purposes.


What would be the best indicator of the nod from the political leaders?

Firstly, where this has been successful, counties have allocated adequate resources to facilitate the process not just for ward level meetings but sub-locational or locational.

One of the counties, in choosing to really get close to the people and to facilitate them to make their own developmental decisions, held 168 sub-location level citizen forums, an increase from 25 ward level forums the preceding year. The number of participants increased from 349 to 11,600. So while the number of meetings increased six-fold, the actual participants increased 33 times.

Similarly, while the women at the 25 ward meetings had been only 37 (11 per cent), their numbers increased to 4,060 (35 per cent) at the sub-location. The gender aspects are easily visible, in that women had less barriers to attending the meetings if they were held near home.

The query that normally follows this significant increase in the number of meetings is, what was the cost implication?

While the number of participants rose by 33 times, the increase in the spending on the process merely doubled.


The cost of holding lower-level meetings at sub-locations tends to be much less as communities meet in open spaces and only get soft drinks and bread for refreshment in a three-to-four-hour meeting.

Ward level meetings however, attracted spending such as transport costs, lunches, venue charges and other facilitation and allowances charges.

But why go to this great length? Why spend weeks to a month criss-crossing the county to get the views of the public every year to incorporate in the planning and budgeting decisions?

Does ‘Wanjiku’ know what her area development needs are? By all means yes. It’s presumptuous to assume that people who have lived all their lives in a place do not know what they need to make their lives better. At the very minimum, people will tell you that they need water, good roads, schools and health facilities.


The challenge will be to guide and facilitate them to prioritise, define what should come first, and when a project is complex — such as the roads, infrastructure or water — provide the technical feedback on the best way to realise their dreams. But, for sure, wananchi know what they need, and public participation forums should enable them to define, prioritise and then allocate the limited resources in their areas of priority.

For devolution to succeed, effective mobilisation for meetings, management of public forums by developing the rules of engagement, facilitating the prioritisation and allocation of resources, are the key elements to effective public participation.

Previously Posted in the Daily Nation.